Vessels that facilitate the supplying of mass quantities of liquefied freight are referenced as tanker vessels. Such liquefied freight can include both rock oil excavated from the underwater reservoirs and all other types of liquid freight like alcoholic beverages, hydrogen based organic compounds, chemicals and even juices. They also carry liquefied gaseous substances.
Different kinds of tanker ships are utilised to provide the appropriate transportation facilitation for these myriad types of liquefied freight. Some of the longest vessels in the world today are tanker ships.
The construction and the technical structuring of tanker ships are stipulated by the IMO (International Maritime Organisation). These stipulations have been amended periodically so as to ensure that the underlying safety aspects of the transportation of such volatile elements are met without any compromises.
Biggest oil tankers in the world (now scrapped)
Tanker Vessels: An Elucidation
As specified earlier, different variances of liquefied freight necessitate the use of different kinds of tanker vessels. Tanker ships are mainly classified on the basis of type of cargo and size of the vessel. Some of the most commonly used tankers are:
- Crude Oil tanker
- Chemical tanker
- Product tanker
- Gas tanker
Crude Oil Tankers
Tanker vessels that are used for oil transportation through marine channels are referred to as oil tanker ships. The terminology of ‘oil tankers’ too by itself is a big domain and covers not just crude oil tankers but also those vessels that are used in the transiting of distilled and processed rock oil.
Vessels that help in the transportation of such distilled rock oil in the form of gasoline, petrol and all petroleum based organic compounds, from their distilling units to the necessary dispersion centres are referred to as product tankers.
Dead weight tonnage (DWT) determines the maximum capacitance of oil tanker ships. The classification of these tanker ships therefore is directly proportional to their DWTs /size. Based on this principle the tanker ships are mainly classified into:
- Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)
- Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)
ULCCs or Ultra Large Crude Carriers are the biggest oil tanker vessels in operation presently with DWTs ranging to a maximum of about five-hundred and fifty thousand tonnes.
The second biggest crude and product tanker vessel types in operation are the VLCCs or Very Large Crude Carriers. These vessels’ variances have a maximum DWT of slightly over three-hundred thousand tonnes.
Crude oil tankers and product tankers are also classified on the basis of the important international water conduits in which they can gain easy entryway. These vessels include:
The tanker vessels that are built to suitably pass through the Panama and Suez Canals are referred to as Panamax and Suezmax vessels. The former vessels have DWTs up to eighty thousand tonnes while the latter ships have DWTs ranging to about two-hundred thousand tonnes. After both the canals where underwent expansion, higher capacity tankers have been built to pass through them. These vessels are known as Post-Panamax and Post-Suezmax vessels.
Aframax tanker ships have DWTs up to slightly over 1, 00,000 tonnes and these tanker types can gain entryway to almost all harbour facilities across the world.
Gas tankers are specially built tankers which are used to carry liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
Tanker vessels are indispensable in the maritime domain. The utility of these vessels has become even more applicable and viable in the ever-growing nature of maritime liquefied cargo transportation, thanks to the technological advancements that have been made in the structural and constructional facets of these vessel types.