What Does the Term “Ocean Biome” Means ?

Ocean biome is a biotic community that is present in the ocean. An ocean biome is the largest biotic community that supports and allows various marine life-forms to thrive and live. An ocean biome supports all sorts of marine life-forms right from fishes to whales, along with other exotic creatures.

In layman terms, a biome is a community wherein life-forms breed and live. And therefore, considering the wide expanse of water bodies on the earth and in terms of its coverage of area, an ocean biome is the most expansive life supporting community. However, an ocean biome is not as simple as it sounds. An ocean biome not only encompasses a wide variety of marine creatures and gives the necessary support required for the survival and existence of the marine animals, but is also diversified into different zones. These zones are speciality areas where different marine life-forms can breed and exist.


An ocean biome is mainly divided into four zones: the Intertidal zone, the abyssal zone, the pelagic zone or the open ocean and the benthic zone.

The Intertidal zone

The Intertidal zone is where the sea meets the land. This is the area where the water level keeps on changing on account of tides therefore the life-forms found in this ocean biome zone are also different. Molluscs, star-fishes, crabs, algae and crabs are some of the life-forms that are found in this ocean biome zone.

The Abyssal zone

The Abyssal zone is the zone which is in the deepest part of the ocean. And it is the ocean biome zone where not many marine life-forms are found on account of less nutrients to support the existence of the marine creatures. Mainly bacteria and invertebrate marine creatures are found in this ocean biome zone.

The Pelagic zone

The Pelagic zone or the Open Ocean is the ocean biome zone which is found in the open seas. On account of the climatic diversity found in these parts of the water, a wide variety of marine creatures are found in this ocean biome zone. Dolphins, whales and sharks are the main marine creatures which are found in this ocean biome zone on account of the climatic diversity which often leads to warm ocean water mixing with the cold ocean water creating a temperate climate.

The Benthic zone

The last ocean biome zone is the Benthic zone. This ocean biome zone is the part of the ocean biome that is found beneath the pelagic zone. Seaweeds, fungi, bacteria and sponges are the main variety of oceanic flora and fauna found in this ocean biome zone.

Apart from these four main types of ocean biome zones, there are also coral reefs which act as an ocean biome. The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is a prime example of the coral reef acting as an ocean biome agent to support the marine life-forms in their survival and existence.

However, as much aid as ocean biome provides to the survival of marine creatures and flora and fauna, it has to be noted that in these past few years due to pollution and degradation, many such ocean biome zones stand a chance to be wiped out. Development by humans has started to take a heavy toll on the existence of the marine creatures on whom, even humans depend for their basic necessity of food and other products. Therefore it becomes very important that we start taking steps to correct our mistake and try to once again make the depleting ocean biome zones thrive again, not only for the sake of marine creatures but also for the sake of our present necessities and future generations to come.

You may also like to read- What are the Creepy “Dead Zones” of the Oceans?

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