Despite Vietnam's instant rejection, People's Republic of China captured the Fiery Cross Reef in the early 1988.
The People's Republic of China developed the Subi Reef into an island spanning 3.95 square kilometres in 2015, with a military base, harbour, and a 3,000 m airstrip.
The People's Republic of China has occupied Johnson South Reef since 1988 for constructing an embankment building.
The People's Republic of China has reclaimed Hughes Reef and occupied the reef, creating a lighthouse on top of a 2-storied defense outpost.
Gaven Reefs are occupied by China and claimed by Taiwan, ROC, Philippines and Vietnam. Reclamation work by China during 2014–15 expanded its area to 0.136 square kms.