Port congestion leads to customer dissatisfaction due to supply chain logistics issues.

Port congestion refers to excessive crowding at seaports, causing issues for various stakeholders including shippers, carriers, consignees, and port authorities.

Force majeure includes unavoidable events like pandemics, storms, rough seas, and even human conflicts like strikes.

Force Majeure Factors

The example of the coronavirus pandemic demonstrates how it affects port operations due to reduced workforce attendance and the time it takes to recover from the backlog of ships.


Storms and rough seas can prevent ships from berthing at certain ports or sailing out of channels safely.

Bad Weather

Delays caused by these issues affect productivity, turnaround times, and the overall efficiency of port operations.

Lack of Infrastructure

Labour disputes and strikes can cause operations to slow down drastically or even grind to a complete halt.

Labour-related Issues

Some countries have complicated customs procedures for imports as well as exports. Some of these formalities can be completed only upon the arrival of a ship. 

Complicated Customs Clearance Procedures

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