The gulf came into origin due to complex geological processes which involved the movement of tectonic plates and subduction of the Indian Plate under the Eurasian Plate that helped in the formation of Sunda Trench.
It is situated along the southern coastline of Myanmar, covers around 23,000 sq km, and expands about 1500 to 200 km wide at its entrance.
Some prominent cities such as Mawlamyine, Pathein, and Yangon thrive near the gulf contributing to the trade and holding cultural and historical significance.
The gulf's geographic development is majorly shaped by crucial rivers like Sittaung, Salween, and Yangon, as they help deposit sediments and form new land.
Rich diversity of marine species thrive in the gulf due to its typical estuarine mudflat environment. It is home to Eden’s or Sittang whales and hosts over 150,000 migratory birds.
It serves as a natural maritime gateway between the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia thereby facilitating trade between these regions.